Behcet 's disease

Behcet 's disease

Behçet's disease was first described by Prof. Dr. Hulusi Behçet in 1937, where oral aphtha, genital ulcers and eye iridocyclitis were observed. three It is defined as a complex disease consisting of symptoms. Subsequent studies revealed that the disease is a vasculitic event affecting many organs with recurrent attacks.

The disease, which can be seen all over the world and in almost every race, occurs quite frequently in countries such as Japan, Korea, China, Turkey, Greece and Iran, which are located on the Silk Road. ;is being produced.

The average age of occurrence is usually between 20-40 years and is seen in women and  in men. The incidence is similar. While acne-like lesions, eye symptoms and vascular involvement are more severe in male patients, genital ulcers and erythema nodosum (subcutaneous hard masses, especially in the lower legs) are more common in women.

What is the reason?

The reason is not fully known. The most defended idea today is the disruption of the immune mechanism in people who are genetically predisposed to various environmental antigens such as viral, bacterial, etc.

What are the symptoms?

  • Recurrent oral ulcers: The most common onset of the disease; The symptom is intraoral sores. It is divided into three: minor, major and herpetic.
  • Genital ulcer: It is more common in women.
  • Skin findings:

    *Erythema nodosum-like lesions: Painful, red, palpable, chickpea-sized masses on the back of the legs, especially in women.

    *Paplopullary lesions:They are one of the most common skin symptoms. It is more common in men. They are small, red, pus-filled blisters, especially on the scalp, back, chest, arms and legs.

    *Superficial thrombophlebitis:  They are painful, sensitive swellings that appear linearly along the veins, often in the legs.

    *Extragenital ulcer: Its edges are sharp and prominent, as if pierced with a stapler. It can be seen in the leg, groin, armpit, breast and neck.

  • Eye and joint symptoms: It may cause eye pain, redness, blurred vision and blindness, which is visible in approximately half of the patients.
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    Joint involvement:  It causes tender, painful swelling in areas such as knees, ankles, elbows and wrists.

    How is the diagnosis made?

    Although there is no specific diagnostic method, in clinically suspected cases, diagnosis can be made with pathergy test, laboratory findings, and eye examinations.

    What is the treatment?

    Treatment options vary depending on the area of involvement of the disease and the severity of clinical findings.

    Since the disease progresses in the form of exacerbations and regressions, medication is not necessary. The aim of the regimen is to suppress inflammation, especially starting in the early stages of the disease.

    For this purpose, cortisone and antibiotic creams, colchicine, oral anti-inflammatory drugs, cortisone, cyclosporine, azothiopurine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate  is located.

    What is the course of the disease?

    The disease progresses with attacks. It is unpredictable when flare-ups will occur. Attacks are more frequent in the first 5-7 years, then they become less frequent. The disease is more severe in young people and men.

    Long-term and continuous monitoring of the disease is necessary. Since it can affect many organs, the treatment and follow-up of the disease should be done jointly with various branches such as dermatology, rheumatology and ophthalmology.